UNITED STATES

EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

.

DURING THE YEARS

1888, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842.

UNDER THE COMMAND OF

CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N. YOL. XX.

HERPETOLOGY,

BT

CHARLES GIRARD,

DOCTOR is MEDICINE: AND SURGERY: CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE BOSTON

SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY; THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA; THE LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK; THE ELLIOT SOCIETY OF

NATURAL HISTORY OF CHARLESTON, s. c.: THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY

OF NATURAL SCIENCES, SAN FRANCISCO: THE "SOCIETE HELVETIQUE

DES SCIENCES NATURELLES :" THE " SATURFOUSC HENDE GESELL-

SCHAFT IN ZURICH;" AND THE "SOCIETE DES SCIENCES

NATURELLES DE XEUCHATEL (SWITZERLAND)," ETC.

WITH A FOLIO ATLAS.

PHILADELPHIA:

J. B. L I P P I X C 0 T T & CO.

1858.

UIIVBRSITY

4,

•?

,0

C. SHERMAN & SON, PRINTERS, Corner of Seventh and Cherry Streets. Philadelphia.

UKIVERSIT7

PREFACE.

To the zoologists into whose hands the present work may come, it is deemed expedient to state, that as far as the families and genera are concerned, the author does not profess to give a full synonymy thereof. Indeed, it was first assumed that the earliest quotation would suffice, and it is but subsequently that the most prominent sources have been referred to. In regard to the species, all the synonyms that could be found have been quoted.

Litigious questions of nomenclature, concerning genera and species, have been dealt with according to the principle of priority. In a single instance, however, a species does appear under a name which, accord- ing to that principle, ought to have been changed ; we refer to Oligo- soma zelandicum (p. 246). That the subject has been under considera- tion, is evinced by the synonymy accompanying it, where the name of Oligosoma moco is quoted. Not possessing the dates at the time the MS. was prepared, an oversight in proof-reading will account for the want of conformity in the reference to the " Proceedings of the Aca- demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," in which a synopsis of the new genera and species has been published, and where it was anticipated also that the latter name would appear.

The descriptions of several of the Batrachians, from the fact of having been drawn up from specimens preserved in alcohol, may ill compare with recent or living ones, especially such as were not sketched from life. A protracted immersion in alcohol is apt to contract the

vj PREFACE.

tissues, sometimes to a considerable degree ; and, although the author has been ever mindful of such an occurrence, his pen may have erred in sundry details of forms or outlines, as well as in the coloration.

When comparisons with genera and species allied to those described appear deficient, the cause of such deficiency is want of materials.

Of the order of Batrachians, the principal groups are represented in the collection ; thus enabling the author to institute comparative studies of most of the genera.

Not so with the Ophidians ; many links are unconnected. Hence, the impracticability of arranging them into natural families. There are even genera the limits of which could not be delineated ; for there is no general collection of exotic serpents in the United States, to which access might have been had, in order to extend the foregoing researches and comparisons. As a general rule, it has been deemed inexpedient to compile from the writers in the same field, where no specimens were available, the author preferring to record in an unpre- tending form, whatever observation he might be able to make.

Amongst Saurians we miss, likewise, representatives of several fami- lies. The difficulties encountered in their investigation have proved greater still, and the gaps wider yet, than for the Ophidians.

As to the Chelonians, the materials at command were but few and fragmentary, and for the determination of them, the author has unexpectedly been led into inquiries of a purely historical character, and which, it is assumed, have thrown a new light upon the entire subject of Marine Turtles or Tortoises.

A general glance at the Reptiles, which we have thus been review- ing, presents two main features : one portion of the collection apper- taining to Continental, the other to Pelagic Faunas.

The representatives of Continental Faunas were obtained in the neighborhood of the various ports touched at by the Expedition : the coasts of Brazil, Patagonia, Chili, Peru, New Holland, Bengal, and Northwestern America. The others, in the coral and volcanic islands of the Pacific Ocean.

A curious fact in the geographical distribution of these animals, on the

PREFACE. vii

Coral Islands, consists in the preponderance of the Gecko and Scink families, to the exclusion almost of all other Saurians, save a genus of lyucutidae, more intimately related to the species of the same family indigenous to the New World, than to those of the Old, should the dentition establish primary relationships ; we allude to the genus Brachyloplim. Amongst Snakes, the aquatic tribes only were noticed, with the exception of a Boa, of a peculiar genus (Enygrus). As to the Tortoises or Sea Turtles, found about those islands, they have proved, contrary to all expectation, characteristic species of the Poly- nesian Fauna, as much so as any of the other reptiles.

An interesting result, touching the geographical distribution of the species of the genus Proctotretus, has been deduced from a comparative study of the specimens collected on the coasts of Patagonia and Chili. Hitherto, several of the species alluded to stood on record as inhabit- ing simultaneously both these remote localities, although it was con- ceded that " these facts, interesting as they were, had never been sufficiently investigated,"* and were put down as anomalies in the laws of geographical distribution of animal life, laws otherwise so precise. Now, as far as the species of the genus Proctotretus are concerned, those anomalies no longer exist : the species of the eastern coast of South America having been found specifically distinct from those of the western coast of the same continent. As regards Bufo cliilensis, alluded to by Thomas Bell, no opportunity was afforded us to investi- gate the subject.

C. G.

* The Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, K. N., during the years 1832 to 1830. Part. V, Reptiles. London, 1843.

CONTENTS.1

TITLE, ....... . iii

PREFACE, ..... v

CONTENTS, .... ix

ORPO I.— BATRACHIA, ..... 3

TRIBCS I.— BATRACHIA URODELA, . . 3

a. TREMATODEIRA, .... 3

/?. ATRETODEIRA. . . 3

FAM. SALAMANDRIDAE, ... 4

GENUS TARICHA, ... 4

TARICHA TOROSA, . . 5

FAM. PLETHODONTIDAE, .... 7

GEXUS ANAIDES, .... ... 7

ANAIDES LUGUBRIS, ....... 8

GENUS HEREDIA, ... . 10

HEREDIA OREGONENSIS, . . . .11

GENUS XIPHOXURA, .... 13

XlPHONURA TENEBROSA, . .14

TBIBUS II.— BATRACHIA ANURA, .... . 16

FAM. RANIDAE, ....... .16

GENUS RANA, . . .17

1. RANA AURORA, ..... .18

2. RANA PRETIOSA, ...... 20

3. RANA DRAYTONI, ....... 23

4. RANA MARITIMA, ...... 25

GENUS LEPTODACTTLUS, ..... .28

1. LEPTODACTTLUS OCELLATUS, ..... 29

CONTENTS.

Page

2. LEPTODACTYLUS CALIGINOSUS, GENUS CYSTJGNATHUS, ... . .

1. CYSTIGNATHUS NEBULOSUS, . . . .33

2. CYSTIGNATHUS PARVULUS, ... 35 GENUS PLEURODEMA, ........ 37

1. PLEURODEMA BIBROXI, ..... 38

2. PLEURODEMA ELEGANS, .... .40 GENUS WAGLERIA, ..... 42

WAGLEHIA PERONI, .... .42

GENUS RANIDELLA, ...... 44

RANIDELLA SIGNIFERA, . . . . .44

FAM. HYLIDAE, . 47

GENUS RANOIDEA, ...... .47

1. RANOIDEA RESPLENDENS, . . . . . 48

2. RANOIDEA FLAVO-TIRIDIS, . . ... 50 GENCS HYLARANA, .... . 52

HYLARANA MINDANEIJSIS, . t . . .52

GENUS HALOPHILA, ....... 54

1. HALOPHILA HEROS, . 55

2. HALOPHILA VITIENSIS, . > > > 57

3. HALOPHILA DORSUALIB, ^ . . v . . 58 GENUS HYLA, ...>.... 59

1. HYLA REGILLA, ....... 60

2. HYLA CYANEA, i . . 62 GENUS HYLODES, ...... 62

HYLODES PARVUS, k i .63

GENUS ELOSIA, ........ 64

1. ELOSIA NASUTA, ..».>. 66

2. ELOSIA BUFONIUM( t ..... 66

3. ELOSIA VOMERINA, . i . . . . 69 FAM. BUFONIDAE, ........ 71

GENUS RHINODERMA, . > 71

RHINODERMA SIONIFERA, . •. •. . . . 72

GENUS BUFO, ..... 74

1. BUFO BOREAS, . . . .74

2. BUFO COLUMBIENSIS, ...... 77

3. BUFO MARINUS, ....... 80

4. BUFO GRACILIS, ...... 83

5. BUFO LUGUBROSUS, ...... 85

6. BUFO THAUL, ....... 88

7. BUFO POEPPIGH, ....... 90

8. BUFO MELANOSTICTUS, ..... 92

CONTENTS. xi

Page

GENUS BCFONELLA, ........ 94

BUFONELLA CRUCIFERA, ...... 95

GENUS METAEUS, . ....... 96

METAEUS TIMIDUS, .... .97

GENUS BRACHYCEPHALUS, ....... 99

BRACHYCEPHALUS AURANTIACUS, . . . . . 100

ORDO II.— OPHIDIA, 105

GENUS SABRINA, .... ... 106

SABRINA TESSELLATA, . . ... 106

GENUS CYLINDROPHIS, ....... 108

CYLINDROPHIS RUFA, ...... 109

GENCS WENONA, . . . . . . 111

1. WENONA FLUMBEA, ...... 112

2. WENONA ISABELLA, . . . . . 113 GENUS MORELIA, . . . . . . .115

MORELIA ARGUS, ....... 115

GENUS ENYGRUS, . . . . . . .117

ENYGRUS BIBRONI, . . . . 117 GENUS RABDION, . . . .119

RABDION OCCIPITALE, . . . . 120 GENUS LODIA, . . . . . .122

LODIA TENUIS, . . . . 122

GENUS CONTIA, ........ 124

CONTIA MITIS, ....... 125

GENUS BASCANION, . . ... 126

BASCANION VETUSTUS, ...... 127

GENUS DENDROPHIS, ........ 129

1. DENDROPHIS PICTA, . . . 129

2. DENDROPHIS PRASINUS, ...... 131

GENUS PITUOPHIS, .......

1. PITUOPHIS CATENIFER, ... . 135

2. PITUOPHIS WILKESI, ... 137 GENUS CALLIRHINUS, ....... 139

CALLIRHINUS PATAGONIENSIS, . . . . 139

GENUS SIBYNON, ........ 142

SlBYXOX NEBULATUS, ...... 142

TROPIDONOTUS JUNCEUS, ...... 145

GENUS EUTAENIA, ....... 147

1. EUTAENIA INFERNALIS, ...... 148

2. EUTAENIA PICKERINGI, ..... 150

3. EUTAENIA LEPTOCEPHALA, ..... 151

4. EUTAENIA OUDINOIDES, . ... 153

D

xJi CONTENTS.

p»g«

5. EuTAEXIA VAGRAKS, ...... 154

GENUS CAXTORIA, . . . . . . . 156

CANTORIA VIOLACEA, ...... 156

LlOPHlS MERREMI, ...... 159

DROMMICUS TEMMINCKI, ...... 161

LYGOPHIS ELEGANS, . . . . . . 163

AMPHIESMA RHODOMELAS, . . . . . .165

XEXODON ANCORUS, ...... 16T

ERYTHROLAMPRUS VENUTISSIMUS, . . . . . 169

GENUS CERBERUS, ....... 170

CERBERUS BOAEFORMIS, . . . . . .170

GENUS TACHYMENIS, ....... 173

TACHYMEXIS CHILENSIS, . . . . . .173

GENUS DOLIOPHIS, . . . . . . . 175

DOLIOPHIS FLAVICEPS, . . . . . .176

PSEUDELAPS PSAMMOPHIS, . . . . . 178

GENUS PLATURUS, . . . . . . . .180

1. PLATURUS LATICAUDATUS, . . . . . 180

2. PLATURUS COLUBRINUS, ...... 183

GENUS PELAMYS, ....... 184

PELAMYS BICOLOR, . . . . . . .185

GENUS CROTALUS, . . . . . . . 187

CROTALUS LUCIFER, . . . . . . .187

Oiino III.— SAUBIA, 193

FAM. VARANIDAE, 194

GENUS HYDROSAURUS, . . . . . . . 195

HYDROSAURUS VARIUS, . . . . . .196

FAM. LACERTIDAE, 197

SUBFAM. COELODONTES, 199

GEKUS LACERTA, . . . . . . . . 199

LACERTA MADERENSIS, ...... 200

SUBFAM. PLEO.DONTES, .201

GENUS TEIUS, ........ 201

TEICS TEGUIXIN, ....... 202

FAM. ZONURIDAE, 204

GENUS EL.GARIA, ........ 205

1. ELGARIA FORMOSA, ...... 206

2. ELGARIA SCINCICAUDA, . . . . . 210

3. ELGARIA GRANDIS, ...... 212

4. ELGARIA PRINCIPIS, ...... 214

FAM. AMPHISBAENIDAE, 215

GENUS CEPHALOPELTIS, . . . . . . . 216

CONTENTS. xiii

CEPHAI.OPELTIS SCUTIGERA, ...... 217

FAM. SCINCIDAE, ........ 218

SI-BKAM. OPHIOPHTHALMI, ...... 219

GENUS CRYPTOBLEPHARUS, . . . . . . 219

1. CRYPTOBLEPHARUS PLAGIOCEPH s .... 220

2. CRYPTOBLEPHARUS EXIMIUS, ..... 222 SUBKAM. SAUROPHTHALMI, ...... 223

GENUS OPIIIUDES, ....... 224

OPHIODES STRIATCS. ....... 225

GENUS TILIQUA, ........ 227

TlLIQUA RUFESCENS. ....... 227

GENUS EUPREPIS. ....... 229

EUPREPIS VEXCSTUS, ....... 229

GENUS CYCLODUS, ....... 232

CYCLODUS GIGAS, ....... 233

GENUS CYCLODINA, ....... 235

CYOLODINA AENEA, ....... 236

GENUS HOMBRONIA, ....... 239

1. HOMBRONIA UKDOSA, ...... 240

2. HOMBRONIA FASCIOI.ARIS, ..... 243 GENUS OLIGOSOMA, ..... . 245

1. OLIGOSOMA ZELANDICI M, ..... 246

2. OLIGOSOMA NOCTUUM, ...... 249

GENUS LYGOSOMELLA, ..... 251

LYGOSOMELLA AESTUOSA, ...... 251

GENUS LIPINIA, ........ 254

LIPINIA VULCANIA, ....... 254

GENUS HINULIA, ........ 257

HlNULIA TAENIOLATA, ...... 258

GENUS MABITYA, ........ 260

MABCYA AGILIS, ....... 261

GENUS EMOA, ........ 262

1. EMOA ATROCOSTATA, .... . 264

2. EMOA SAMOENSIS, ..... 265

3. EMOA NIGRITA, . ... 268

4. EMOA CYANURA. ...... 270

FAM. GEKKOTIDAE, ...... .272

GENUS GEHYRA, ... ... 272

1. GEHYRA OCEANRA, ...... 273

2. GEHYRA VORAI, ...... 274

GENUS PEROPUS, ... 277

1. PEROPUS MUTILATUS, . . . . 277

xiv CONTENTS.

Page 2. PBROPUS NEGLECTUS, . . . . . .278

GENUS DACTYLOPERUS, ....... 279

DACTYLOPERUS INSULENSIS. ..... 280

GENUS CROSSURUS, . . . . . . . 281

CROSSURUS PLATYURUS, ...... 281

GENUS HEMIDACTYLUS, ....... 282

1. HEMIDACTYLUS MABUIA, ...... 283

2. HEMIDACTYLUS CYANODACTYI.US, .... 284 GENUS DORYURA, ....... 285

DORYURA VULPECULA, ...... 286

GENUS ASCALABOTES, ....... 288

ASCALABOTES DELALANDII, ...... 289

GENUS GEKKO, ........ 290

1. GEKKO INDIUUS, ...... 290

2. GEKKO MONARCHUS, ...... 292

GENUS HOPLODACTYLUS, ....... 293

HOPLODACTYLUS POMARII, ..... 294

GENUS DIPLODACTYLUS, ...... 296

DlPLODACTYLUS VITTATUS, ..... 297

GENUS DISCODACTYLUS, . . . . . 299

f DISCODACTYLUS PHACOPHORUS, ..... 300

GENUS PHYLLURUS, ..... 302

PHYLLURUS PLATURUS, .... 303

GENUS GONIODACTYLUS, ...... 304

GONIODACTYLUS MARMOKATUS, , 304

GENUS HETERONOTA, ..... 305

HETERONOTA PELAGICA, ...... 306

GENUS NAULTINUS, ..... 303

NAULTINUS PUNCTATUS, . . . 359

PAM. IGUANIDAE, 312

SUBFAM. PLEURODONTES, ... ... 313

GENUS MICRO LOPHUS, .... 313

MlCROLOPHUS PERUVIANUS, . . . 3J4

GENUS TARAGUIRA, .... 317

TARAGUIRA TORQUATA, .... 3jg

GENUS SACCODEIRA, .... 322

SACCODEIRA ORNATISSIMA, .... 323

GENUS PROCTOTRETUS, ..... 326

SUBGENUS PROCTOTRETUS, ..... 329

1. PROCTOTRETUS SPLENDIDUS, .... 329

2. PROCTOTRETUS PECTINATUS, .... 333 SUBGENUS LIOLAEMUS, .... 334

CONTENTS. XV

Pmge

LlOLAEMUS X1TIDUS, SUBGENUS LlODEIRA,

LlODEIRA CHILEXSIS, SUBGENUS PTTCHODEIRA,

1. PTYCHODEIRA GRACILIS, . . 341

2. PTYCHODEIRA FEMORATA,

3. PTYCHODEIRA STAXTOXI, . - 347

4. PTYCHODEIRA CYAXOGASTEK, .

5. PTYCHODEIRA IXTERMEDIA,

6. PTYCHODEIRA MOSAICA, . . 349 SUBGEXUS RHYTIUODEIRA, . 349

1. RHYTIDODEIRA KIXGI, . 350

2. RHYTIDODEIRA MAGELLAXICA, . . 351

3. RHYTIDODEIRA BIBROXI, . 352

4. RHYTIDODEIRA WIEGMAXXI, 352

5. RHYTIDODEIRA XIGROMACULATA, . . 353

6. RUYTIDODEIBA OXYCEPHALA, .... 353 SUBGEXUS EULAEMUS, ....-• 357

1. EULAEMCS TEXUIS, . 358

2. EULAEMUS DARWIXI, ... 361

3. EULAEMUS PICTUS, ..... 364

4. EULAEMUS FITZIXGERI, . . 365

5. EULAEMUS AFFIXIS, ..... 366

6. EULAEMUS SIGXIFER, . . 366

7. EULAEMUS MACULATUS, . . 367 SUBGENUS ORTHOLAEMUS, ...... 368

1. ORTHOI-AEMUS BEAGLII, . . 369

2. ORTHOLAEMUS MULTJMACULATUS, . 372

3. ORTHOLAEMUS FITZROII, . 373 GEXUS BRACHYLOPHUS, .... 373

BRACHYLOPHUS FASCIATUS, . . 374

GEXUS SCELOPORUS, . . 377

1. SCELOPORUS UXDULATUS, . . 379

2. SCELOPORCS OCCIDEXTALIS, ..... 383

3. SCELOPORUS FROXTALIS. .... 384

4. SCELOPORUS GRACILIS,

GEXUS PHRYXOSOMA, . . 388 SUBGEXUS TAPAYA, ...

1. TAPAYA ORBICULARIS, . 394

2. TAPAYA HERXAXDESI, . 395

3. TAPAYA ORXATISSIMA, . . 396

4. TAPAYA BREVIROSTRIS, . 397

E

XVI

CONTENTS.

Page

5. TAPAYA DOUGLASSI, ..... 397

SUBGENUS BATRACHOSOMA, ...... 400

BATKACHOSOMA CORONATUM, .... 400

SUBGENUS PHRYNOSOMA, ...... 402

1. PHRYNOSOMA CORXUTUM, ..... 403

2. PHRYNOSOMA REGALE, .... 406 SUBGENUS DOLIOSAURUS, ...... 407

1. DOLIOSAURUS M'CALLI, .... 408

2. DOLIOSAURUS PLATYUHINOS, .... 409

3. DOLIOSAURUS MODESTUS, .... 409 SUBFAM. ACRODONTES, 410

GENUS BRONCHOCELA, . . . . . . . 411

BRONCHOCELA CRISTATELLA, . . ... 411

GENUS AMPHIBOLURUS, ....... 413

1. AMPHIBOLURUS MURICATUS, ..... 414

2. AMPHIBOLURUS MACULIFERUS, . . . . 417 GENUS OREODEIRA, ........ 419

OREODEIRA GRACILIPES, ...... 420

ORDO IV.— CHELONIA, 425

SUB-ORDO I.— CHELONII, 427

FAM. CHELONIDAE, ........ 429

GENUS THALASSOCHELYS, ...... 429

THALASSOCHELYS CORTICATA, ..... 431

GENUS LEPIDOCHELYS, ....... 434

1. LEPIDOCHELYS OLIVACEA, . . . . . 435

2. LEPIDOCHELYS DUSSUMIERI, ..... 437 REMARKS ON CHELONIA VIRGATA, SCHW., ..... 437 GENUS CARETTA, ........ 438

1. CARETTA IMBRICATA, ...... 440

2. CARETTA SQUAMOSA, ...... 442

3. CARETTA ROSTRATA, ...... 446

GENUS EUCHELYS, ....... 447

EUCHELYS MACBOPUS, ...... 448

REMARKS ON THE GENUS HALICHELYS OF FITZINGER, . . . 451

GENUS CHELONIA, ........ 452

1. CHELONIA VIRIDIS, ...... 453

2. CHELONIA MACULOSA, ...... 454

3. CHELONIA MARMORATA, ..... 455

4. CHELONIA FORMOSA, ...... 456

5. CHELONIA TENUIS, ...... 459

SUB-ORDO II.— TESTUDINATA, 461

FAM. HYDRASPIDES, 462

CONTENTS. xvji

Page

CHELYMYS MAUIJUARIA, ... . 462

FAM. EMYDIDAE, ..... .463

SniFAM. CLEM.MYDIDAE, ... .464

GENUS ACTINEMYS, . . . 464

ACTIN'EMYS MARMOBATA, . . . 465

FAM. TES1TDIXIDAE, ... .470

GENTS TESTUDO, .... . 470

TESTUDO AUSTRAI.IS, . . . 470

LIST OF PLATES, . . . 473

INDEX, ... 477

ORDO I. BATRACHIA.

THE reptiles known under the vernacular names of salamanders, frogs, tree-frogs, and toads, together with the group of Ceciloid, con- stitute the natural order of Batrachians. The peculiar metamorphoses which some of them undergo, have made of them one of the most in- teresting group of animals both to physiologists and zoologists.

In one tribe, these metamorphoses are of a very prominent order : we allude to the frogs and toads. The tadpoles, as the young of these latter are called, are provided with a tail, wanting at the same time both pairs of legs. They, furthermore, lead a purely aquatic life ; breathing through the means of gills, situated on either side of the neck, altogether unprotected, and fish-like in their external aspect. By degrees the legs make their appearance, and the tail diminishing, until it is entirely absorbed. Meanwhile the lungs are developed, and the gills atrophy ; a complete change in their mode of life takes place : they leave the water and take to the dry land.

The majority of the caudate Batrachians (Vrodela), undergo likewise metamorphoses in their mode of breathing : at first, this act is per- formed through the means of gills, whose function is gradually super- seded by that of the lungs.

From this twofold mode of life of these Batrachians, the Order to which they belong has often been called the Order of Amphibia.

The structure of the heart and the system of circulation has led some naturalists to look upon the Batrachians as constituting a class by themselves, more intimately allied to the class of fishes than to that of reptiles, properly so called. That structure, added to the metamor- phoses above alluded to, and to the facts, that there are no external organs of generation in the males, and that the external envelope of

i

BATRACHIA.

the eggs is membranous, which eggs are mostly laid before the act of fecundation takes place, are, indeed, strong analogies of what is ob- served in most fishes. Still, the general opinion now is, that the affinities of the Batrachians with the other reptiles are most intimate, and that their true place in the organic scale, is in the latter class, in which they constitute a natural order.

The true affinities of the Batrachians with the other reptiles, con- sist in the structure of their skeleton : there are two occipital con- dyles uniting the skull to the vertebral column, and in the majority of them we observe a distinct sternum, although not combined with the ribs, themselves rather short.

TRIBUS I. BATRACHIA URODELA.

BOOT elongated, lacertiform, tapering, provided with a tail in the adult as well as in the young ; having generally four limbs, and sometimes only two ; the fingers and toes being always clawless. Skin naked, either perfectly smooth, warty, or granular. There are teeth on both jaws, and often on the vomer and sphenoid bones also. No external auricular aperture. Inner nostrils situated in the middle of the palate. Vent longitudinal. Neither sternum nor clavicle.

SYN.— Urodtles, BUM. Zool. anal. 1806.— BUM. & BIBB. Erpet. g<Sn. VIII, 1841, 15; &, IX, 1854, 1.

OBSERV. Generally known under the name of salamanders, in op- position to the frogs and toads, and which constitute the tribe of ecaudate Batrachians (Batrachia anura), the caudate Batrachians (Batraclna urodela), resemble the lizards in their general appearance, and are often confounded with them by the uninitiated. A feature by which they can at once be distinguished from the lizards, consists in their naked skin ; whilst lizards exhibit either scales of various forms and structure, else granular epidermic indurations of a peculiar type. Besides, should the integuments leave us in doubt as to the nature of the animals under consideration, there are other characters to which

BATRACHIAURODELA. 3

we may have recourse. Thus, whatever be the number of fingers and toes, they are always clawless in these Batrachians, for, the geckos, which are amongst lizards those that might be mistaken for them, although deficient in the development of their toes, will, never- theless, always exhibit enough of these organs to guide the observer without any difficulty. The absence of external auricular apertures, is another feature peculiar to the tailed Batrachians, and but seldom met with amongst lizards ; and, finally, the longitudinal anal aperture is not the least amongst the distinguishing traits of these two divisions of animals.

The tailed Batrachians subdivide into two groups ;

a. TREMATODEIRA,

WHERE we observe either external or internal gills persisting through- out life. When the gills are internal, there are branchial fissures or apertures on the sides of the neck.

SYN.— Trlmatodlres, BUM. & BIBR. Erpet. gen. VIII, 1841, 53; &, IX, 1854, 174. OBSERV. None of which were collected by the Expedition.

/?. ATRETODEIRA.

WHEN fully grown there are neither external nor internal gills, hence no branchial apertures. The young, however, are provided with external gills, which they gradually lose in growing up to maturity. At this latter period of their existence, the lungs are called into play, through the means of which they breathe the atmospheric air.

Svy.—Atrttodlres, BUM. & BIBR. Erpet. gen. VIII, 1841, 53; &, IX, 1854, 36.

OBSERV. The species of Urodelian Batrachians collected by the Expedition are but four in number, all of which belong to the second group, that in which the gills and branchial apertures become oblite- rated when entering upon the period of maturity, or full-grown state.

These four species are distributed into four genera, one of which belongs to the family of Salamandridae, and the three others to that of Plethodontidae.

BATRACHIA.

FAM. SALAMAKDRIDAE.

PALATINE teeth extant, and disposed upon two diverging or else parallel series, along the inner hinder edge of the vomero-palatine bones, which are elongated. Sphenoid bone toothless.

SYN. Salamandridae, GRAY, Ann. of Philos. 1825, 215. BONAP. Saggio Distr. inetod. Anim. vertebr. 1831, 84. GEAY, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 14.

OBSEEV. All the genera which constitute the present family are characterized by the peculiar disposition of the palatine teeth, which are arranged upon two longitudinal series ; " one on the inner hinder edge of each of the elongated triangular vomerine bones," as observed by J. E. Gray. The sphenoid bone is toothless. The tongue is broad ; free laterally, and more or less free also posteriorly.

GENUS TARICHA, GRAY.

GEN. CHAR. Head broad, depressed. Snout protruding slightly beyond the lower jaw. Tongue rather small, rounded or elliptical, attached by almost its whole under surface. Palatine teeth dis- posed upon two longitudinal series, forming an elongated and very acute angle. Maxillary teeth rather small. Tail very long and compressed. Four fingers and five toes, entirely free, broad and depressed. Skin either smooth or granular.

SYN.— Tariclia, GRAY, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 25.

OBSERV. With a general resemblance to Tritons, the species of this genus may be readily distinguished from the latter by the inconspicu- ousness of the maxillary teeth, by a much smaller tongue, and by the absence of a series of pores on either side of the abdomen.

Eschscholtz, in his " Zoologischer Atlas," has furnished us with valuable information regarding the anatomical structure and zoological characters of this genus.

Two species of the genus Tariclia have so far been described ; both inhabiting the western coast of North America. One of these was

BATRACHIAURODELA. 5

brought home by the Expedition ; is figured and described further on ; the other was collected at San Francisco, Cal., by Dr. John L. Leconte, and recorded under the name of Taricha Icevie ;* it being perfectly smooth, and furthermore distinguished from Taricha torosa by proportionally smaller eyes and more elongated toes.

Hallowell's Salamandra luyubris, doubtfully referred by J. E. Grayf to the genus Taricha, is entirely distinct from the latter, and consti- tutes now the genus Anaides, described further on.

TARICHA TOROSA, Gray. (Plate I, figs. 1-8.)

SPEC. CHAR. Tail longer than the head and body together, com- pressed, provided with a slightly elevated membranous keel upon its upper and lo\ver edges. Tip of toes callous ; inner toe in both pair of limbs very small. Skin granular. Color blackish-brown above, with minute pale dots; sides of abdomen orange; beneath yellowish.

SYX. Triton torosus, ESCHSCH. Zool. Atl. V. 1833, 12. Taf. xxi, fig. 15.

Triton ermani, WIEGM. in Erman's Reise urn die Erde, 1835, :

and Arch, fur Naturg. 1836, II, 250.

Salamandra beecheyi, GRAY, in Beechfy's Voy. to the Pacif. Zool. 1839, 99.

Triton granulosus, SKILT. Amer. Journ. of Sci. VII, 1849, 202. PI. figs. 4 and 5.

jNotophthalmus torosus, BAIRD, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. Second Series, I, 1850, 284.

P/eurodeles California*, BlBR. in Mus. Zool. Soc. London. (Fide Gray.)

Taricha torosa, GRAY, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 25.

DESCR. The head is broad and depressed, the upper surface being subconvex. Viewed from above, it is subelliptical in shape, longer than broad. The snout is subtruncated, and the temporal region swollen. The eyes are of medium size, elliptical in shape. The dis- tance between the anterior rim of the eye and the extremity of the snout is equal to one and a half diameter of the eye. The nostrils are subterminal, and far apart. The upper jaw overlaps the lower, the mouth being but moderately cleft, and extending posteriorly ;

.i

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Philad. VI, 1853, 302. f Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. Part II, 1850, 26

2

6 BATRACHIA.

little beyond the posterior rim of the orbit. When the mouth is closed, its posterior third is entirely overlapped by a horny expansion of the upper jaw. The teeth, on both jaws, are very minute, slender and acute, disposed upon one irregular row. The vomero -palatine teeth are not conspicuous, and in order to ascertain their presence a magni- fying glass is required.

The body is subcylindrical ; thickest upon its middle, and dimi- nishing slightly anteriorly, more so posteriorly. The tail, longer than the body and head together, is very much compressed, roundish upon its origin, but very thin towards its posterior extremity. It is pro- vided, above and below, with a membranous, fin-like expansion, extending from near the base to its very tip.

The fore and hind limbs are almost of the same stoutness and length ; the toes, in both, are depressed. The anterior limbs have four toes, the innermost of which being very small ; the third is the longest ; the second a little shorter than the third ; the fourth, or outermost, being still shorter than the second. There are five toes to the hind limbs ; the innermost, the smallest ; the outermost, a little larger than the latter ; the third, the longest ; the second, a little shorter than the fourth. The extremities are callous in all.

The skin, owing to the presence of small tubercles, has a granulated appearance throughout. The tubercles are irregularly distributed all over the head, body, tail, and membranous expansion, limbs, toes, and under surface of the body and head ; nearly as thickly beset on one region, as on the other, mayhap, a little more numerous upon the head. The tubercles themselves are smooth ; the intervening space is covered with exceedingly minute granules.

No sooner immersed in alcohol, specimens contract considerably, and then exhibit folds of the skin, which are not observed on live individuals. There are no systems or series of pores visible upon any region of the body, as is the case in Tritons. Minute pores are scattered all over the body, in the same manner as the tubercles themselves.

The color of the head, body, and limbs, is brownish-black above ; reddish-brown, in specimens preserved in alcohol. The iris is black. Small light spots may be seen upon the head and anterior portion of the body. The sides of the abdomen and limbs, also the lower por- tion of the tail, are reddish-orange. The inferior surface of the head, belly, and limbs, is dull-yellow or brownish-yellow.

BATBACHIAURODELA. 7

Many specimens of this species were collected in 1841, at Nisqually, Puget Sound (Oregon), and San Francisco (California). The sketch from life was made from Puget's Sound specimens by Jos. Drayton.

Plate I, fig. 1, represents Taricha torosa ; size of life and in profile. Fig. 2, exhibits the under surface of the same specimen. Fig. 3, is an outline of the head, seen from above, showing the wide interocular space.

Fig. 4, shows the head in profile, and exhibits the cleft of the mouth.

Fig. 5, is a front view of the head.

Fig. 6, a view of the inferior floor of the mouth, in order to show the shape and size of the tongue.

Fig. 7, is the upper floor of the mouth, exhibiting the inner nostrils, and the position of the teeth.

Fig. 8, represents a magnified portion of the skin, taken upon the dorsal region, giving an idea of its structure.

FAM. PLETHODONTIDAE.

Vomero-palatine teeth disposed upon one series across the posterior extremity of the vomerine bones, thus constituting a cross band behind the inner nostrils, in front of the palate. Sphenoid often- times covered with teeth. Vomerine bone broad and short. Skin generally smooth, rarely granular, and without any series of pores.

S?y.—Plethodontidae, GRAY, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. II, 1850, 31.

OBSERV. The above characters of the Pletliodont family are mostly derived from the "Catalogue of Amphibia in the British Museum."

GENUS ANAIDES, BAIRD.

GEN. CHAR. Head, subelliptical, broader than the body ; snout, bluntly truncated, and protruding beyond the lower jaw. Cleft of the mouth, undulating, as in the alligator. Maxillary teeth very large, compressed, lanceolated, and sharp, with edge minutely

g BATRACHIA.

crenated ; largest upon the lower jaw, and all, apparently, un- attached to the bone, but united to the gum, and admitting of a depression backwards. Vomero-palatine teeth inconspicuous ; dis- posed upon an obtuse-angled triangle, behind the inner nostrils, which consist merely in a notch in the posterior edge of the palatine floor. Sphenoid teeth in two elongated and approximated patches. Tongue large, cordiform, attached along its median line only. Eyes, large and prominent. Limbs, rather slender ; four fingers and five toes, slender, free, and terminated by a small rounded callous disk. Tail, subcy- lindrical, slightly compressed and attenuated. Skin smooth and soft.

SYN. Anaides, BAIRD, Iconogr. Ency. II (1st ed.), 1849, 256.

OBSERV. The affinities of this genus will place it near Pletliodon, in a natural method, perhaps, even between the latter and Desmognatltus.

ANAIDES LUGUBRIS, Baird. (Plate I, figs. 26-33.)

SPEC. CHAR. Body rounded. A fold of the skin under the neck. Tail, tapering; almost as long as the body and head together. Inner finger and toe quite small. Uniform dark-olive above, light- olive beneath. Sometimes scattered yellowish spots over the head, sides, and back.

SYN. Salamandra lugubris, HALLOW. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. IV, 1848, 126.

Anaides lugubris, BAIRD, Iconogr. Encycl. II (1st ed.), 1849, 256. B. & Gr. in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VI, 1853, 302.

Taricha lugubris, GRAY, Catal. Amph. Brit. Mus. Part II, 1850, 26.

DESCR. The head is elongated ; very much depressed, flattened, and, when viewed from above, has almost an elliptical appearance. The snout is very prominent, protruding beyond the lower jaw. The nostrils are elevated ; lateral, subterminal, and far apart. The eyes, very prominent ; their diameter enters only once in the distance between their anterior rim and the extremity of the snout. The cleft of the mouth is large and undulating. The maxillary teeth are proportionally large, especially on the lower jaw; they are lanceo-

BATRACHIAURODELA. 9

lated in shape ; very acute and thin. The palatine teeth are incon- spicuous, rather blunt, disposed upon an open V-shaped figure, the summit of which being directed backwards, whilst its branches extend to the internal and posterior margin of the inner nostrils. There are two elongated patches of minute teeth on the sphenoid, closely approximating anteriorly and diverging slightly posteriorly, where they are rounded and broadest. The cordiform or peltate tongue fills the whole space of the inferior floor of the mouth ; it is attached along its medial line, whilst its sides are perfectly free, as is also, slightly, its tapering tip and its posterior bilobed expansion.

The neck is elongated, and slightly contracted ; a distinct and well- marked gular fold may be observed on the specimens before us. It will be important to ascertain whether that fold exists during life, since its presence has baen contested by some writers.

The body is subfusiform, diminishing towards both extremities. The sides of the abdomen are transversely folded, mayhap, an effect of artificial contraction. The tail is almost as long as the head and

o

body together; it is subcylindrical, somewhat compressed, and taper- ing away ; its upper and lower edges are rounded.

The limbs, generally speaking, are slender, the posterior ones a little longer and stouter than the anterior. When the former are brought forwards, and the latter backwards, alongside the body, the toes of either are caused to meet with each other. The toes them- selves are slender, entirely free, and terminated by a callous, disk-like expansion, resembling, in that respect, the species of the genus (Edi- pus. The anterior inner toe is quite small ; the third is the longest ; the second, nearly equal in size to the fourth. The posterior inner toe is small also ; the third and fourth are the longest, and almost equal in length ; the second and fourth, again, are nearly equal.

The skin appears quite smooth ; when examined under the micro- scope, however, it is found to contain a meshwork of minute, irregu- larly stelliform bodies, as exhibited (though very imperfectly) in figure 33, each stella having a hollow or clear centre.

The color, as preserved on specimens in alcohol, is of a uniform dark-olive above, and light-yellow beneath.

Collected at San Francisco, California.

Plate I, fig. 26, represents Anaides lugitbri-s, size of life, in profile.

3

Of THB

falUV; SIT7]

10 B A TRACK I A.

Fig. 27, exhibits the under surface of the same animal.

Fig. 28, is a view of the head from 'above, showing the distance between the eyes.

Fig. 29, a profile of the head, showing the undulated cleft of the mouth.

Fig. 30, is a front view of the head.

Fig. 31, the inferior floor of the mouth, showing the tongue.

Fig. 32, the upper floor of the mouth, exhibiting the patches of sphenoid teeth, the disposition of the vomero-palatine ones, and the inner nostrils.

Fig. 33, a somewhat magnified view of a fragment of skin, exhibit- ing the granules it contains. Under a higher power, these granules are irregularly star-like in shape.

GENUS HEREDIA, GIRARD.

CAR. GEN. Gapite subelHptico, et quam corpus ampliore ; rostro obtitso, rotund if or mi, ultra maxillam inferiorem protrudenie. Otis rictu obliquo, rectilineari. Dentibus maxillaribus minutissimis, vixque visib'dibus. Dentibus vomero-palatinis in duplicem arctim acutam, qui ex splienoidalis extremitate anteriore per palati marginem pos- teriorem extendunt atque e naribus interioribus aperturam angustam efficiunt, dispositis. Dentibus sphenoidalibus in duas areas oblongas ordinatis. Lingua ampla, eUiptica, centrali quadam radice fixa, tertiaque ejus parte posteriore libera manente. Oculis magnis. Cruribus gracilibus, anterioribus longioribus ; digitis palmarum quatuor, plantarum quinque, omnibus distinctis et attenuantibus. Gauda subcylindrica, paulum compressa, in extremilate gradatim minuente. Gate externa Icevi et molli.

GEN. CHAR. Head, subelliptical, broader than the body. Snout, blunt and rounded; protruding beyond the lower jaw. Cleft of the mouth, oblique and rectilinear. Maxillary teeth exceedingly minute, scarcely perceptible. Vomero-palatine teeth disposed upon a double ogive, extending from the anterior extremity of the sphenoid, along the posterior edge of the palatine floor, thus making of the inner nostrils a circumscribed aperture. Sphenoid teeth forming two elongated patches. Tongue large, elliptical,

BATRACHIAURODELA. H

attached by an elongated central pedicle, and free upon its poste- rior third. Eyes large. Limbs slender; anterior ones, longest; four fingers; five toes, all free, tapering. Tail subcylindrical, slightly compressed, tapering towards the tip. Skin, exteriorly smooth and soft. v

Svn—Iferedia, GRD. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VIII, 1856, 140.

OBSERV. No genera are more alike in their external aspect than Heredia and Anaides. To distinguish them we must have recourse to the anatomy of the buccal cavity, although, one might recognize them on a profile view of the head, where the cleft of the mouth would become an important feature.

HEREDIA OREGOXENSIS, Girard. (Plate I, figs. 18-25.)

CAR. SPEC. Plicatura sulcollo nulla. Cauda subcyUndrica, gradatim mtnuente, quam corpus et cnput simitl sumpta lonyiore. Pulmarum et 2>I">it«rnm diyiti* tcnuibns et dlstinclis, inttrlorilus perparvis. Cute Icevi. Colore supra fusco ; infra dariore.

SPEC. CHAR. No fold of the .skin under the neck. Tail, subcylin- drical, tapering, longer than the body and head together. Fingers and toes slender and free ; inner one very small. Skin, smooth. Color uniform dark-brown above, lighter beneath.

SrN.— Hiredla oreyoiiensis, GRD. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VIII, 1856, 141. —HALLOW. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. VIII, 1856, 235,

DESCR. In its general physiognomy this species resembles strik- ingly, Ana ides hujubris. It has the same general shape of the head, neck, body, and limbs ; but the callous termination of the toes is much less developed.

The head is quite prominent, depressed ; its upper surface sub- concave ; elliptical in outline, when seen from above. The snout is thick and subtruucated, overlapping the lower jaw. The nostrils are

12 BATRACHIA.

lateral and nearly terminal. The eyes are prominent, subcircular ; the distance between their anterior rim and the extremity of the snout is a little more than one of their diameter. The cleft of the mouth is uniformly curved, and not undulating as in Anaides higit- bris ; its angles extend almost to a vertical line drawn across the posterior rim of the orbit. The maxillary teeth are very minute, almost invisible to the naked eye. The palatine teeth are small, and disposed upon two open curves, one on each side, extending from the medial line of the palate almost to the jaw bone, leaving the inner nostrils in advance of them. The sphenoid teeth are very minute ; disposed upon a double patch. The tongue is proportionally large, elliptical ; adhering along its medial line, and free on the sides, as also posteriorly.

The neck is very distinct from the head and body. There is no gular fold. The body itself is subcylindrical ; diminishing anteriorly as well as posteriorly ; it is not plicated or folded laterally, though the specimens exhibit vertical lines corresponding to the ribs. The tail is subcylindrical ; rounded above and below ; a little longer than the body and head together ; very much tapering, and terminating into a point.

The anterior and posterior limbs are of equal length ; but the latter are stouter, and when bent in an opposite direction, alongside the body, they overlap each other the whole length of the carpus and tarsus, including the toes. The inner toe, in both pair of limbs, is quite small ; in the anterior pair, the third is the longest ; the second is a little shorter than the latter, and the fourth, a little longer than the first or inner one. The longest toe, in the <