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CROMWELL’S METHOD OF DISSOLVING PARLIAMENT. From the Sydney MSS.

“Wednesday, April 20, 1653. The Parlement sitting as usuall, and being on debate upon the Bill with the amendments, which it was thought would have bin passed that day, the Lord Generall Crom- well came into the House, clad in plain black clothes, with gray worsted stockings, and sate down as he used to do in an ordinary place. After a while he rose up, putt off his hat, and spake ; at the first, and for a good while, be spake toe the commendation of the Par- Jement, for theyr paines and care of the publick good; but after- wards he changed his style; told them of theyr injustice, delays of _justice, self-interest, and other faults; then he sayd, Perhaps you thinke this is not Parlementary language ; | confess it is not, neither are you to expect any such from me;’ then he putt on his hat, went out of his place, and walked up and downe the stage or floore in the iniddest of the House, with his hat on his head, and chid them soundly, looking sometimes, and pointing particularly upon some persons, as Sir R. Whitlock, one of the Commissioners for the Greate Seale, Sir Henry Vance, to whom he gave very sharpe lan- guage, though he named them not, but by his gestures it was well known that he meant them. After this he sayd to Corronell Harri- son (who was a Member of the House), Call thei in,’ then Harri- son went out, and presently brought in Lieutenant Collonell Wort- ley, (who commanded the Generall’s owe regiment of foote), with five or six files of musqueteers, about 20 or 30, with theyr musquets, then the Generall, pointing to the Speaker in his chayre, sayd to Harrison, ‘Fetch him down;’ Harrison went to the Speaker, and spoke to him to come down, but the Speaker sate still, and sayd no-

thing. ‘Take him down,’ sayd the Generall; then Harrison went |

and pulled the Speaker by the gown, and he came downe. It hap- pened that day, that Algernon Sydney sate next to the Speaker on the right hand; the General] sayd to Harrison, Put him out.’ Har- rison'spake to Sydney to go out, but he sayd he would not go out, and sate still. The Generall sayd again, ‘Put him out,’ then Harrison and Wortley’s putt their hands upon Sydney’s shoulders, as if they would force him to go out, then he rose and went towards the doore. "Then the Generall went to the table where the mace lay, which used to be carryed before the Speaker, and sayd, Take away these bau- bles,’ so the soldiers took away the mace, and all the House went out; and at the going out, they say, the Generall sayd to young Sir Henry Vane, calling him by his name, that he might have prevented this extraordinary course, but he was a juggler, and had not so much as common honesty. All being gon out, the doore of the House was locked, and the key with the mace was carryed away, as I heard, by Corronell Otley.” .

”« Wednesday, 6th December, Corronell Pride, an officer of the army, with some souldiers attending him, came and stood in the pas- sage to the House of Commons, having a list of divers names, and by command of the General! seized on divers members of that House, as they were going into the House, and sent them away prisoners, about 34 or 35 of them, among which Mr. Crew, Mr. Swinson, Sir William Lewis, Sir John Clotworthy, &c.

i DISCONTENT.

Fairy Favours, with other Tales; by E. F. D. 12mo. pp. 256, London, 1825. W. Cole. Gut ;

This is a pretty and clever little volume, containing ten ingenious and fancitul Tales for the amusement and edification of youth.

The first and longest story, of Alice and the Fairy Fortuna, is a vood lesson on the folly of coveting supernatural gifts; and those which follow it have all desert of different kinds. But the space we ean allot to such a book, and the nature of the last Tale, entitled Discontent, must confine our notice.to that alone, as a fair specimen of the author’s talent.

“Qn the border of a grass-plot, in the midst of a gay and highly cultivated flower garden, there grew a root of daisies. Immediately opposite was a brilliant patrerre, where the most rare and beautiful plants were flourishing in the greatest order and perfection. *

The poor little Daisy, who observed the care and attention which were bestowed upon the garden flowers, could not help lamenting the difference which both nature ‘and fortune had placed between their condition and hers. If the weather was dry, these pampered favourites had their roots refreshed by artificial show ers ; their stalks, as they grew up, were carefully supported, their leaves and buds carefully watched, and preserved from the depredations of slugs and caterpillars : andnot aweed was allowed to approach them, while she, all the while, was left to struggle as she could against the encroachments of grass, trefoil, and plantain.

Notwithstanding these disadvantages, the Daisy grew strong and healthy ; her buds daily increased around her; the soft dews of even- ing nourished her roots; and the ‘sun, which shed its beams on all alike, expanded her flowers, and tinted her petals with the bright- est red. But the canker of discontent had taken possession of her anind.

‘“« Early one morning, before the sun had arisen, or the birds awak- ened—while the dew-drops hung thick on every bud, and all nature was wrapt in the calm serenity of the hour, the Daisy, though her flowers were closed, was ruminating on her condition, when, at once, the air was stirred by a gentle breeze, and she felt her leaves sudden- ly expand, as if under the influence of a mid-day sun. A form, bril-

by instinct, that she beheld Flora, the guard and genius of the flow- ery tribe.

«Of what,’ said the bright vision, does my Daisy complain—the most favoured of my children, and one that [ always deemed the happiest?”

sence of the genius, yet felt indignant at the idea of being thought favoured and happy.

¢ Alas !’ replied she, ‘is it wonderful that a wretch, neglected and despised as I am, should complain? Placed, too, in a situation which I have the opportunity, daily and hourly, of comparing my condition with that of the favourites of fortune?) Were I perishing, not a drop of the water which is so Javishly poured on them, would ever be be- stowed on me; and am I not trodden to the earth twenty tines a day by those who give all their attention and admiration to a favoured tribe. Possessing neither beauty nor fragrance to attract the regard of the human race, nor even sweets for the insect world, I do not wonder that [am held in no esteem; but can I, at the saine timet help repining at being what I am?”

* “In lamenting your supposed misfortunes, like all who are dis- contented, you entirely overlook the blessings you possess. It is true, indeed, the Daisy does not experience the care and attention which | are bestowed upon the garden flowers; but how much greater an ad- vantage is it to have a constitution independent of all such assist-

ance? The full beams of a July sun, which would wither some of these objects of your envy, does but enlarge your blossoms: the keen | wind, or driving storm, that would destroy all their beauty, passed unheeded by you; and the careless footstep, from the pressure of | which you rise elastic and unbroken, would prove destructive to the brittle stalks of these more tender productions of nature. Neither is the Daisy despised—if not highly valued, it is yet always pleasing; for what fiower can boast so enduring a season? blooming in the earliest spring, and often gilding, with its smiles, the latest months of the vear, welcome to the sight of the passenger, as it reminds him of the opening year, and brings also to his recollection that still happier season, the days of childhood, when to seck Butter-flowers and Dai- sies was his greatest delight.’

The Daisy, though she listened with apparent attention, felt nei- ther consoled nor convinced by these arguments in favour of her condition, which the genius perceiving, said to her :

“** You have hitherto only remarked the general advantages which other and more cultivated flowers possess over you; but wait pa- tiently the revolving season, and when, after careful observation, you find some individual plant you would like to become, your wishes shall be fulfilled.’

The Daisy watches the condition of all the various ornaments of the earden in succession, and finds evils in the lot of each. Thus

The severity of the winter began to slacken, and in the month of February the snow-drops peeped out from the bosom of the earth. Although not very striking in their appearance, yet it was delightful to be the heralds of the spring—the first flowers of the season; and they were welcomed by every one with a pleasure which was truly flattering; while, at the same time, their unpretending and modest demeanour disarmed envy.

‘“ The second day, however, after the opening of these early, but ill-fated blossoms, they were buried beneath a heavy fall of snow. The storm at length subsided; the sun shone bright, but the beauty of the Snow-drop was gone, and the Daisy could not but lament the destiny of these fragile flowers, whose tender stalks and delicate hues seemed but ill calculated for the season in which they were des- tined to bloom.

‘The Snow-drops had scarcely faded, before the Crocuses began to show themselves, who, notwithstanding the fate of their predeces- sors, were pushing forward with all imaginable expedition. They were a gay merry little tribe, with a high opinion of their own con- sequence, and very proud of their attire of bright yellow or rich pur- ple. It was evident that they considered themselves the finest flowers in the garden, rnd imagined February to be the finest month in the year. ‘Theirs, however, was a harmless vanity, anda happy self-de- lusion.

““Phe weather was now remarkably favourable—the sun shone brightly every day, and the Crocus@s expanded their blossoms each morning to receive its beams, seeming most truly to enjoy every mo- ment of their existence. Ina little more than a fortnight their brief reign was over: without any appearance of decay, or fading of the colours, the flowers all at once dropped their heads, as if they had been broken; and, in a short time, nothing remained of them but long straggling grass, more littering than ornament.al’ :

Dahlias, Evergreens, Tulips, Lillies, Roses, Pinks, &e. &e. pass in their respective seasons, and the Daisy observes the various imper- fections and inconveniences attending the state of each, which, how- ever pleasantly related, we have not room to copy. The tale thus concludes :

“As the season advanced, though many of the gay flowers that

liant and beautiful, was bending over her; and the Daisy knew, as if

‘The poor little flower, though awed in some degree by the pre-|

- $$

| ornaments; for the Carnations, those beautiful and distinguished | plants, were now in full bloom, and the air was scented with thei | spicy frngrance.

High in rank and estimation, the Carnations possessed all the desirable qualifications without being liable to the grievances of which ‘the Rose and the Lilly had complained. | Nothing could seem hap- | pier than their condition; yet the Daisy felt no desire to exchange | her own humble lot for theirs; for she had observed their early train- jing, and the severe discipline they constantly endured. All their | branches spread, or twisted, to the gardener’s fancy—not allowed to grow without being confined at every joint ; and, of the most valua- ble kind, even the flowers were not permitted to open, but under re- striction, and cased with paper. The little Daisy, who had been ac- customed to strike her roots, and send forth her buds, as nature di- rected, at once decided that nothing could compensate for such re- straints.

“Twelve months had now gone round; and in the various tribes of plants which had formerly been the objects of the Daisy’s envy, she found, upon close observation, that there was not one whose con- dition she preferred to her own; her ill-formed conjectures had prov- ed groundless ; her ambitious wishes no longer prevailed ; but, in the mean time, the Daisy had learnt an excellent lesson—for she had

learnt To BE CONTENT.” —_<—— HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS,

ROUTE TO LUDAK.

Extract of a Leticr, dated Soobathoo, December 11, 1823.

My next camp was at an elevation of 12,500 feet, nearly on a le- vel with the last trees, which are the birch. Close to the camp was a stream, sheeted over with ice which never thaws. J] was now sur- round with ‘hoary peaks, and the dell had closed into a gorge. The following day brought me to the pass in the snowy range. At a height of nearly 14,000 feet the sward broke up; and at 15,000 feet | the slope of the mountains facing south began to be thickly covered with snow. Ilere our respiration was affected, and we experienced great debility, and consequent sluggishness. Halting every few yards, we made slow progvess over the snow, which, freezing in the sun’s rays, reflected a heat and brilliancy that almost blinded us. At three o'clock, after much exertion, I reached the crest of the pass (therm. 30 deg.), and pitched my tent upon the snow, which covered every point, a fresh fall having confounded rocks and heaps of snow together. I got the barometer up, with some trouble, and made all snug for the night, which was setting in with a serene sharp- ness not casily conceived. By sunset the temperature had fallen to 21 deg. and then the night came, worse than the day. I soon began to be oppressed by head-ache and fulness, and the increased motion of the blood induced giddiness; my face was in a flame, my eyes burning, and the pain in my head intolerable. I felt as if in the first flush of a fever—hot, cold, and drowsy at the same time, and had a dreadful thirst which I could not satisfy, as all our water was frozen. At ten o'clock beer in bottles began to freeze, and soon after Madei- ra: every thing was acted on by the frost, and there was an inces- sant cracking; the sharp air making its way through all the clothes I could heap together. I despaired of seeing daylight; the moon shone full upon us, the sky was as dark as ebony, and the stars rayed and flashed like meteors. Morning came and disclosed a congealed group of people and things. The thermometer was down to 6 deg. inside of the tent; on the outside, the beer was converted into alump of ice, and the bottles bnrst in pieces ; the Madeira was slush ; the tent ropes were stretched to their last hold, and the pole was bent over the table. I never passed such a night of misery, and shall not again expose myself to such atrial. It is impossible to form any idea of the sensations induced by the rarification of the air: there is an anxiety, and a sense of suffusion, quite intolerable ; and on the slightest motion the breathing is hurried, and it is impos- sible to get a full inspiration ; the air being here reduced to nearly one half its density at the level of the sea, the elasticity of the sur- face of the body is taken off, and there being no sufficient counter- balance to the circulation, the blood beats against the relaxed sys- tem and deranges the whole. The extreme height of the pass, by the barometer, is 16,500 feet, and it is flanked by peaks rising to 18,500 at least; the crest is less sharp than most other passes I have seen, the slopes decliaing very gradually. In the rainy season, much of the rock is disclosed ; but so carly as the middle of September fresh snow again falls. A flock of beautiful birds, like golden phea- sants, visited us in this desolate domain, and came so close that we might have caught them, but ] could not quit my bed. At eleven o'clock [ got up, and began the descent towards Ludak, under the sedative effect of my night's suffering ; in fact, I was quite confused. The snow deepened at every step, as what lay near the pass was hardened by the frost. We got on very slowly till we came to rifts in the old snow, half concealed by the fresh fall; the guides dread ed approaching them, and led the way with ropes tied round thei: waists, to haul them up in case they slipped: they began a circuit that would not have cleared us of the snowy tract till night, and none of us could stand another trial. At last we were stopped by «# dreadful rent in the snow, andthe guides declared they would not be responsible for our safety. I stood horrified at the scene, and with great reluctance ordered a retreat. The only route into Ludak now left me was by the valley of the

adorned the carly months had passed away, the garden did not lack |

Suiluj, through the rugged and pituresque region of Kunawur; the

me

26

river continued its course in a dark ravine, sometimes tearing its way amongst masses of granite, and then softening into deep blue stillness. The country may be said to lie within clusters of moun- tains sheeted with perpetual snow, there being no table-land or un- dulated plain in any one part. The inhabited portions are confined to the vallies of rivers, or gorges of torrents; and the villages are scattered aiong their banks at a general elevation of 9,000 feet, but in the interior they rise to 12,000. The seasons vary with the height of the level; in the lower regions of the vallies, the climate at sum- mer is warm. The finest grapes occur near the margin of the ri- ver, and in the dells of streams flowing from the snow, where the so- lar reverberation is great. In this region, also, the finest flavoured honey is gathered, Ata height of 9,000 feet the climate is delicious ; our Europe fruits come to perfection, and the forest trees and all the wild flowers of our country are spread over the soil. The pasture- zones occupy a belt between the limits of the trees and the confines of perpetual snow. Near the frontier of the table-land we find vil- lages at 12,000 feet; the heaviest crops of barley are gathered here; and numerous willows, poplars, and junipers thrive in this upland tract. ‘The climate corresponds to that of the Highlands of Scot land; butthe sun has more power. Frosty nights begin in the mid- dle of September, and the winters are extremely rigorous ; little snow falls where the air is so dry. As we penetrate towards the Chinese frontier, the country and scenery change; trees shrink from the arid atmosphere, become stunted, and vanish; vegetation is sap- less and scanty ; the mountains themselves diminish into bluff mass- es, over which the people ride on horseback. In July and August the air is humid, and clouds flit about the peaks, crawling along their sides like mists changing their places; and, according to the variations in the density of the atmosphere, they sometimes roll down in a body and settle in the bottom of the valley, where they rest motionless till some atmospheric change sets them in agitation, when they move off, as if by consent, and rising till the air can no longer support them, they forma belt round the crests of the peak, which shoot through their sides, and appear like islets in the ocean. Such are the general features of the country through which my route Jay. The traveller in his course finds himself environed by cliffs which are perpetually breaking loose; his daily occupation is climb- ing to the tops of mountains, and desending again to their base; at one time shivering on the verge of congelation, and immediately af- ter oppressed by heat. Precipices of a frightful depth are often skirted by means of rade staircases of frail construction; and tor- rents are crossed by cradle-bridges of twigs swinging in the wind. ‘The inhabitants of Kunawur are very black, with now and then a flush of red in their face. :

On the 18th, being very ill, owing to my imprudence in eating sovr grapes, I was obliged to pass the night at an elevation of more than 13,000 feet; therm. 20 deg. On the following day, after incredible exertion, we crossed the range at an elevation of 14,500 feet, the wind blowing furiously, and chilling us to the bones: the grandeur of the view from this spot cannet be imagined. We were on the pass at noon, and by 3 o’clock in the dell below, at a height of 9,000 feet, where is situated the populous village of Soongnum, the inhabitants of which live comfortably, subsisting chiefly on their flocks; their open, honest faces do not belie their manners, which are frank and courteous. ‘The mountains on each side rise to within the verge of congelation, and seem to lock up the vale in perpetual repose. The Darbaang,a fine stream, waters the dell, and rises from masses of perpetual ice, at the foot of a pass to Ludak, 18,600 feet; but I durst not attempt it so late in the year. Even in the be- ginning of September, I had the temperature there at noon under a bright sun 23 deg.

On the following day I crossed the mountains that shut in the dell, by a pass, 15,000, but without snow. I stood on the crést at noon, therm. 25 deg.; in front was a granite range of most desolate as- pect, not a blade of vegetation visible ; the snow itself only finding a resting place at 19,000 feet: beyond it, through a break, were seen snowy mountains, pale with distance, appearing to rise out of the table-land on the banks of the Indus; and from the angles of al- titude which I observed, their pale outline, and the broad margin of the snow, they cannot be less elevated than 29,000 fect. The impres- sion which their faint cloud-like portraiture leaves upon the mind of the spectator, who views them on the verge of the horizon, language fails to convey; it is like something that we have seen, but retain only vague and ill-defined idea of, appearing through the dimness of dis- tance as objects mingling with the skies. As I had no time or place for fixing their position, I adopted Humboldt’s plan of vertical lenses, the results of which should give an approximation to their height. My route now being along the course of Leh, or Speetee river, which is nearly half the size of the Sutluj, every thing in this neighbour- hood bespoke the action of water. We found horizontal strata of sandstone, marle, and loam, inthe most regular layers, and at prodi- gious heights; granite reposing above clay, and sandstone above

nite. Eastward, the table land is strewed over with ammonites, at heights of 16,500 feet.

From Sheealkur onwards was new ground tome, and I was occu- pied surveying. Our territory here confines upon China and Ludak. Sheealkur is a part of Bussahir ; but this still extends a day’s jour- ney before it infringes upon Ludak. The access is by a pass 14,000 feet high. From this lotty spot I saw far into the country N. E., till the view was limited by the crest of a range that sends its waters to the Indus; but there was not a sign of table-land ; nothing but bar- ren desolate rocks, without snow, yet of incredible height: the sky over them was tinged with a light shade, as if by the horizon of a plain. The country is extremely arid; not a tree is to be seen; the soil yields only tu’ts of furze ; and we find the same characteristics ofa desart as occur in that to the west of India; but instead of water- melons, there are créps of ice, like mushrooms, sprouting from the soil, and which in some parts, afford the only supply of water to the inhabitants. Inthe heart of the mass of ice is the thinnest weed, which compared with the bulk it supports, may be considered like the stem of a water-melon. This, by some process unknown to me, nourishes the ice, and it goes on increasing, spreading out like the leaves of a plant; the ice is very thin and porous; but how it exists I cannot say, for I found it where the temperature was above 50 deg. and it grows in warmer places.

My camp was to-day at the frontier village of Bussahir; thermom- eter 23 deg. atsunrise. Next day I forded the Speetee ona yak (bos grunniens). The river is here elevated 10,400 feet above the sea, and all beyond this is Ludak ; the route lay in the valley, which opens out, and the stream ripples over a bed of sand and pebbles.

Notwithstanding my elevation, the sun’s rays darted through the ra- rified air, and were reverberated by the naked rocks, and produced a glow of heat uncomfortable even at this season of the year. In my second day’s journey into Ludak, I passed a small village, be- longing to the Chinese government, situated in a plain where the lake freezes in the night, and are frequented by wild geese and ducks, which I shot, ate, and relished. At this place are numerous paintings and works of sculptors, remarkably well finished, and we are left wondering at the origin and ingenuity of the agent in so se- cluded a spot. Although at an elevation of 11,000 feet, the soil is vastly productive; I measured poplar trees of twelve feet in girth. The day was dark and snowy upon the neighbouring mountains, but the clouds had not power to quit them, and we escaped with a Aintle slect. The route hitherto had been a few points to the north

of west; but the river at one bend sweeping round to dne north, we! is found in every house ; old and young seem to be at the cask all | them ; - . :

She Albion,

arrived at Dunken, a fort of Ludak, perched upon the face of a, cliff atan elevation of almost 13,000 feet. The climate is consequently rude and disagreeable ; but the sun’s rays are sufficiently powerful to keep the people comfortable on the roofs of the houses in the dead of winter. A thermometer in the sun rose to 126 deg. while the temperature of the air was 32 deg.

This is truly a singular spot; the rock on which the fort stands is limestone rubble, apparently in the last stage of decay ; the cavities and scoops wore into it, by age and weather, have undermined its foundatiens, and. it is besides full of rents, into which the sun shines, and astonishing to say, as they enlarge they become the abodes of people. ‘fhe thermometer at sunrise was 19 deg.; a little snow fell during the night, and winter was obviously in the air. What the people do in the severer season, considering that the climate was al- ready so harsh, I cannot guess: the wood is collected with great Ja- bour from a distance, and sparingly used ; furze is almost the only fuel. To-day I passed vast flocks of sheep, tended by shepherds from the banks of the Indus, who seem of a different stock from their neighbours, the Lutakees. They had fine horses and dogs with them, and were altogether better disposed, and in easier cir- cumstances. They are a hardy race, living in a plain without trees or cultivation, in tents made of yaks’ hair. Their sheep are noble animals, rising nearly breast-high, and carry heavy loads. On what they feed, to thrive so well [cannot guess, for I saw nothing but tufts of furze. Green grass is said to fill without effect, consequent- ly neither these nor the shawl-wool goats will live out of their native element. From Dunken I descended to the river, which is here ele- vated 11,500 feet; the dell is of a fine expanse, and the eye rests with delight upon the scene, after the roar and foam of the Sutluj. My camp, at the village of Lara, was 12,000 fect above the sea, and at night the ground was sprinkled with snow. Thermometer 19 deg. at sunrise ; an hour Of sunshine cleared the soil, and I prosecuted my route with spirit; the streams were all sheeted with ice, un- thawed in the sun’s rays; and cascades, arrested in their fall, exhi- bited solid columns of ice, which only melt when spring returns. My next day’s journey brought me to Rangreek, in a plain sloping gently to the river; elevation 12,500 feet. The snow began to fall in the night, and there was no cessation of it for two days, till the whole face of the country was one uniform desolate expanse. In the bottom of the valley the snow lay two feet deep, and the moun- tains appeared like heaps of pure snow. How I was to make my way over the elevated tract, beyond the inhabited country, was a subject of great anxiety. I gazed upon the snowy splendour of the valley with horror. The thermometer fell to 6 deg. during the night, and I began the march at 11 o’cleck, in a temperature of 20 deg. Nature siniled upon the snow, not a cloud was in the air, and a solemn stillness prevailed. I surveyed, by the tract of the yaks, and got on pretty weil through the snow, the greatest inconvenience I experienced being from the sun’s rays, which darted upon us with a fierceness the more sensible from the sharp chill of the air, which was never heated beyond 25 deg.: the reflection from the snow dazzled me, as I took no precaution for my eyes, and sutlered dreadfully trom its effects.

At three o’clock, after being four hours inthe snow, we came to the margin of the river. Thesun had already leit the dell; here we were instantly beset by the cold. Our shoes and stockings, pre- viously moistened by the thawing of the snow, now froze; we gra- dually became benumbed, and on passing by a cleft in the shore of the river, we were struck tothe bones by a sudden gust of wind, which rushed down like a current, and three of the coolies in the rear were caught in its eddy, and sunk down under it. [ pulled out the thermometer and found it 16 deg.; my hands could no longer point the theodolite, and I ceased surveying ; making a free use of brandy, I pushed on over the sharp edges of the frozen snow. There was no exposing the face to the wind; our breath congealed upon our beards, and the clothes grew stiff upon our backs. In ford- ing a stream, the water froze as fast as it touched us, till feet and legs were as stiff as wicker-work ; two coolies were overwhelmed by the frost, and fell to the ground. 1 could not assist them; it was fly or die. We still travelled through the snow, and I began to despair ; the sun was near setting; no village was in sight, and the frost as- sumed a degree of severity quite alarming. At five o’clock the vil- lage appeared at the foot of the mountains, terminating a dead level plain, without a speck or bush to break the snowy waste: we arriv- ed in a miserable state, the thermometer being down at 12 deg. I could not prevent my people from getting into the fire; their limbs had lost all feeling ; and then came that dreadful sensation of thaw- ing and re-action. I was forced away by the smoke, leaving a group of wretchedness to their lamentations too much to endure: they lay like carcases. I passed the night in a shed, in a temperature of 6 deg. My face was literally snow, and my cyes felt as if they were burning in their sockets. The cold penetrated through every thing, the air outside being at zero; half my camp were useless, and the remainder refused to stir, and how could | push them to their des- truction? 1 was now within one day’s journey and a half of the last village in this route; and being here at an elevation of 13,000 feet, and the bed of the river only 400 feet lower, the limit of the inhabitants and cultivation in this valley cannot be below 13,500 feet. Lassur is the last village. Beyond this, there is a steep ascent to the pass, from which the country rises in an inclined plane, where there is a desart, which in the best of times occupies five days in passing it. In summer, Tartars with their flocks resort to it for pas- turage. It freezes here even in July ; what must be the degree of cold in this region in autumn, the depth of snow, and the horrors of the journey, without shelter or fire-wood? I made every effort to persuade a few of my people to accompany me, but only four offer- ed to share my misfortunes. Thus compelled to leave all my in- struments behind, what was to be gained by risking so much to so little purpose?) Geography was my object. Another fall of snow, or some unforeseen obstacle on the road, would have destroyed eve- ry thing, as the time which I had assigned to myself would not ad- mit of my retrograding, if I advanced another march. I was there- fore reluctantly compelled to abandon my project, and here ended ny tour, as it began, in disappointment. The weather was now set- tled and serene, and the cold increased. ‘Thermometer 2 deg. be- low zero: what must it be in the dead of winter, and on the summits of the mountains of snow? Even on the high land between this and Ludak, or at Lassur itself, the cold is beyond any thing that Parry experienced in the latitude of 74, and I was here in a parallel of 32 1-2; such is the effect of elevation. In summer, however, the cli- mate is fine, but the nights are @lways sharp. Leh, the capital of Ludak, was still ten days’ journey behind me; but the whole route is to be accomplished on horseback.

Of the character of the Lutakees I cannot speak favourably; they are a rapacious race, with all the vices, and none of the virtues of real savages. They are cowardly and assuming. Their youth is without honour, and their age without respect. They are ragged and greasy, and nature has not favoured their outward form. The women are forward, and highly immodest; prudery is an accom- plishment unknown to them ; and I suspect that female chastity may be bought for a trifle. I lived with a family during the snowy wea- ther, and had an opportunity of seeing the economy of their house- hold. ‘They live comfortably enough, eating three times a day ;

their chief subsistence is soup, but the flesh of the yak is a comnon dish. ‘Tea is drank by the better classes, and beer made from malt

July 9,

day. Juniper is burnt before meals as incense; but in bad weather, when the people cannot stir out, itis kindled in the house, and the smoke blown into the faces of the people aboutto eat. Their super- stition resembles that of my own countrymen; in the making of malt circumspection is observed, lest the evil eye of some old hag should oocasion the failure of the process. They have an abhor- rence of putting the feet upon the grate. To my surprise, the whole fainily slept promiscuously together in the room | occupied ; old and young, males and females. They rest upon their breast in an in- clined position; but they undress before going to rest. A sheep- skin cloak, with the fleece towards their body, is their garment for the night. The family with whom I lodged were rather a fine speci- men of the inhabitants, who perhaps improve on acquaintance, and they are certainly quite officious where it is their interest. I think they show better in their natural character. Pitch your tent in the field, and you are liable to be imposed upon; but step inside and you become a member of the family. ‘The Lutakees believe that there is a raceof people who feed upon dead bodies (human car- cases), and that they have unnatural countenances. The valley of the Speetee is the only regular one I have met with, as the moun- tains are not usually continuous, but appear in vast insulated masses, like hiilocks studding a plain. The rise of the soil is generally 25 feet per mile. The villages are scattered. In returning, I had the temperature, on successive days, at 1, 3, 7, 10, and 15 degrees, the river freezing fast at the margin, and the stream full of ice. The geese and ducks had forsaken the lakes, and the water-courses were turned to lines of solid ice: such is the horrid aspect of the country, and its eternal winter!

—> A CONVICT’S RECOLLECTIONS OF NEW SOUTII WALES.— Continued.

When Governor Philips first went into the country, he took with him some stock of all sorts. About 3 weeks after he arriv’d in the Colony, he miss’d 2 cows and a calf. They could not be found any ware; neither was they seen by any one for nearly 3 years after. They had increas’d, but could not be secured by any means. As the Colony gets inhabited, they still keep getting back in amongst tlie trees, what we call the Bush. At this time there are many bundreds of them. They are always very fat, and of the Europeon and buffelo breed. The Governor wont allow any one to kill any of them, but it is suppos’d that many of the calves is speard by the blacks. There was 2 men apprehended, and brought to Sydney for trial, and was cast for death for it, but the Governor thought proper to respite them, they was sent to Coal River for life. ‘They took with them a great many casks and a deal of sault, and went up the country a long ways, and shot them there. ‘They would pickel the beef, and send it to Sydney. I suppose they was at that game nearly 2 years, the way it was discovered the farmers up the country could not get their men to do any work. Meat was so cheap, they got as fat as hogs at last. Some of the farmers went to the Governor and gave information and the 2 men was apprehended.

When I left the bay, I ship’d myself as servant to a gentleman and lady, which had been convicts, but had accumulated enough to retire to England with ; one would have thought that | ought to have been happy, but I was never so unhappy in all my life; the reason was | brought with me stow’d away 6 men, Mr. 'T knows Zor 3 of them very well, they were men that I had a very great respect for, and | do mean to say, that no man will leave behind him a triend in bond- age, if he has it in his power to assist him, if they choose to chance the consequence of it. There was two men on board which had been prisoners, one was a friend of mine, and the other was a flat; 1 did not know much of him, he ship’d himself as cooper, and my friend as alandsman; the reason I was unhappy was, 1 could not do by those men as I could wish; I was oblig’d to go out a thieving every night for provishions for those men; to be shoor | brought some tools with me such as would unlock any of the harness casks where the meat was kepd; we hada deal of passenger’s on board I had yous d to give them a turn all round, they had very frequently yous’d to say they thought the meat went very fast. Then I had a aeal of difficulty, in getting it cook’d and was very frequently oblige to give it down raw, bread they could assist themselves to, down in the ships hole ; moonlight nights sometimes I could not get an oppertunity of getting any meat, then when my master had yoused to have any pea soup or rice, | was cook, it mostly yoused to upset when it was half or little better than half done, that yous’d to go below with any thing else J could lay hold on that was eatable ; very often complaints made of the ships cook for cutting pieces of meat of belonging to the passen- gers, my friend yous’d to call the black cook a one side while I cut a piece of every thing I could find. There was only two of the sailors that knew of these men and this cooper: well, one Sunday eveving after we had been to sea about a month, the cooper and my friend had a few trifling words in the forecastle ; I never shall forget it as long as I ever live; I was standing unscrewing a cask for some meat, he thought, I suppose I was one of the sailors, and saise where is the captain, | ask’d him what he wanted, he saw it was me, he ran to the cabbin and calld out as loud as he could, murder, the ship ia going to be taken ; up runs the captain and mates, and calls all hands, it was a very still night, he told the captain that my friend and me had got 8 or 10 men below in the ships hole stowd away from the bay, and that we ment to take the ship. Well, they got candles and went down in the ships hole, could not find any body, but the captain would not give it up, but began to smoak the ship, and in